Roses are a noble flower grown on the site.
Propagation of roses by cuttings is a simple way of "cloning" plants that satisfy florists or decorative qualities, or resistance to weather tests of the local climate, or both of these parameters at once.
Moreover, even beginners can handle the way - we all know how to cut twigs into separate pieces since childhood.
In order for the cuttings to take root and in the future to please with beautiful buds, you need to know and follow a few simple recommendations regarding the choice of planting material and how to prepare it for planting in the ground, care.
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What roses can be donors for cutting cuttings?
All. Even from a donated bouquet. Given that, that the flowers are domestic, not Dutch, fed with preservatives to the state “are able to hold out in all their glory for a record number of days, but have forever lost the ability to“ reincarnate ”.
Although, if the gardener has a very "light" hand, then why not try to grow a rose from a foreign guest, not really hoping for a positive result of the undertaking?
How suitable is a single stem for grafting? Break off one of the thorns on it.
Did the thorn come off easily? This means that the rose can be cut into cuttings.
The stem that did not have time to stiffen has more chances to take root. When performing preliminary marking on a branch, strive for areas with greenish, juicy bark, and not cracked light brown bark on the cuttings.
Some growers claim that the survival rate among June cuttings is higher than that of cuttings cut and planted in the ground later.
If the climate in your region is characterized by mild temperatures throughout the warm season, with occasional rains, then yes, the procedure is best done in early summer.
Other fans of experimenting with the propagation of flowers by cuttings should "look back" at the wind rose and the seasonal temperature characteristics of a particular climatic zone.
Owners of greenhouses or volumetric window sills are engaged in cuttings of roses at any time of the year.
It is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the climate when deciding: to leave the rooted "seedlings" on the ground in winter, or to move them under the roof by transplanting them into flowerpots. In strong, below 20 degrees of frost, even covered "seedlings" - half a year may not survive the cold.
How to cut a rose stem from the ground?
Using donors from the ground, stems with buds not yet fully formed are selected. After carefully examining the "patient", immediately, if any, a site with a skin resembling the surface of a tree is discarded.
The long stem is divided into several pieces up to 7-8 cm long, making sure that at least two or three buds and a couple of leaves are present on the segment.
If the donor branch is short, then only one seedling is formed from it.
Separating the body of the cutting from the stem, the first cut is made strictly perpendicular to the stem, the second - the bottom of the "baby" - at an angle of 45 degrees, wielding a maximally sharpened knife.
The lower cut is made just below the bud, which serves as a nutrient accumulator, which will help the cuttings acquire roots faster.
When to cut roses from a bouquet?
Especially desperate flower growers, who do not have the strength to raise their hand to the presented beauty immediately, cut bouquets after the leaves of the petals begin to fall.
Until this moment, the flowers are daily immersed overnight in a container of clean water, making sure that the lower edges of the buds do not come into contact with the liquid.
"Baths" help the stems of roses to keep fresh and saturated with moisture, which will further increase the survival rate of cuttings cut from them.
However, if you really want to get the same rose in your collection as in the bouquet, then it is better not to risk it, and disassemble a couple of copies from it right away.
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What to do with cuttings of roses after cutting?
The cut stems are cleaned of all the buds, and at the same time of almost all the leaves, leaving only a couple of branches for the possibility of photosynthesis.
So that they cannot intensively give off moisture, they are "milled", cutting off half of each of the leaves from the leaves.
Prepared cuttings are placed for a day in an aqueous solution of some fertilizer that stimulates root formation (for example, heteroauxin, root). The next day, the "seedlings" are placed for rooting in:
- potato tubers;
- in flowerpots;
- into a container with water.
How to properly root cuttings of roses in the ground?
Having chosen a secluded place, where on a summer afternoon the flowers will not feel like in a frying pan, they dig out several trenches-ridges 15 cm deep.
Three-quarters of them are filled with a nutrient mixture of turf, leafy soil and sand - one part at a time.
Chernozem, humus or seasoned bottom peat - two parts. The top backfill, two centimeters thick, should be made of sand, previously sifted and washed.
A removable wooden or metal frame is installed above each ridge or immediately above all of them - to stretch the film, which will provide the "seedlings" with greenhouse conditions.
If there are few cuttings, they will be planted separately, then a cut plastic bottle or glass jar can play the role of a greenhouse for each.
The cuttings are planted in ready-made ridges with a slope to one side so that the lower edge of the stem does not come into contact with the nutrient component of the trench.
Roots develop better in a sandy environment that is well permeable to moisture. This will prevent putrefactive processes from developing around the resulting root system.
After planting in the ground, the cuttings are isolated from the world by a film stretched over the frame. To keep the temperature inside the greenhouse at a given level - within 25 degrees, the structure is shaded when it is too hot outside. Three times a day, lightly spraying the ridge with clean water is carried out, lifting the cover.
This allows you to maintain a favorable moisture content for the "seedlings". In case of excessive moisture, the greenhouse is ventilated by briefly lifting one of the edges of the film.
After three weeks, the cuttings begin to sprout. The buds of the "seedlings" also begin to activate, which is determined by the growth of the shoots.
After that, the humidity inside the greenhouses should be gradually reduced by longer ventilation in the morning.
The active growth of shoots and the first leaves will tell you that the plants no longer need greenhouse conditions. However, shading the roses from the burning midday sun is still necessary.
How are cuttings rooted in potato tubers?
Potato queens provide the "seedlings" of roses not only with moisture, but also with starch, which is very useful for cuttings that do not yet have either their own root system or sufficient foliage involved in the processes of photosynthesis.
Cuttings are harvested according to the usual scheme. Sorted, without spots of decay and other sores, cleaned of dirt and eyes, potatoes are pierced with a handle, deepening the bottom edge of the "seedling" by two centimeters.
Having "planted" all the available "seedlings" in the uterus, the latter are placed in trench-ridges filled with clean sand. The upper barrel of tubers should be slightly peeking out of the soil.
The ridge is covered entirely with a frame with a film, or each of the "seedlings" is covered with a plastic / glass jar.
Watering is performed as the earth dries up. Once a week, irrigation water is enriched with sugar by adding a couple of teaspoons of granulated sugar to a glass of liquid.
For 14 days, the "seedlings" are regularly ventilated. After another 14 days, the shelter is removed - under favorable weather conditions.
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How are cuttings rooted in flowerpots?
Rose cuttings are planted in flowerpots using the same technique as in the ground.
The only difference is that the bottom layer of soil in the pot should consist of pebbles, expanded clay - for drainage.
Fertile soil from cultivated garden soil is poured over it. The last layer is sand.
Placing the cuttings in a flowerpot is performed in the same way as in the bed soil.
How is the root system of "seedlings" of roses grown in water?
Cuttings peeled from leaves are placed in a jar of clean water and the container is removed to a warm room with diffused light.
The liquid is changed every two days, along the way inspecting the cuttings for the appearance of mold (the cuttings that have begun to deteriorate should be disposed of immediately).
After 21-23 days, a whitish cloud begins to form around the lower edge of the stems - callus. You should not cleanse "seedlings" from it, as this is a harbinger of the development of the root system.
The real roots that appear will tell you that it is time for future roses to be planted in the ground, where they should first be placed under a film or cans.