Cultivation of eggplant has always been viewed by gardeners as a kind of skill test. Heat-loving culture is capricious, fastidious, requires constant care.
However, the emergence of new varieties and hybrids, modern agricultural techniques made it possible to grow eggplants without leaving the apartment.
Homemade eggplant varieties
For a winter garden, varieties and hybrids of ultra-early and early varieties with a compact dwarf or semi-dwarf bush, resistant to diseases, are chosen.
- Diamond... Glossy, with dense greenish pulp, without bitterness.
- Albatross... Refers to mid-season.
- Afghan red... Ultra-ripe. Ripening period - 100 days from the first shoots. Forms clusters of round, red, small fruits.
- Delicacy A-163... Early ripening variety. The first fruits are harvested 115-125 days after germination.
- Early dwarf 921... Multi-fruited variety.
- Lolita... Hybrid. Recommended for extended and winter-spring cultivation.
- Maikop -15... For dining purposes, mid-early.
- Solaris... Resistant to temperature changes. Ties fruit well.
- Touring 6... The fruits are pear-shaped with a dark, almost black skin.
Two ways to grow on the window
- Transplanted in the fall, grown in the open field, low bushes on which the ovary remains in pots with a volume of at least 5 liters and move them to an apartment.
- The soil in the pot is tamped towards the walls. Well watered... Excess stems and leaves are cut off, placed on a windowsill protected from drafts.
- Until the plant takes root, it is regularly sprayed and watered.
- Further cultivated as indoor eggplants grown by seedlings.
- Growing up continues for 1-3 months.
Growing eggplant from seeds at home
- Culling dried, damaged, small seeds.
- For your own seed fund select fully ripe soft fruits... Cut into several longitudinal parts. Gently take out the seeds with a tablespoon. Dry.
- Uncoated seeds needs to be disinfected... To do this, prepare a weak solution of potassium permanganate and pickle seeds in it for 20-30 minutes.
- Wrap the seed in a damp cloth... Leave for germination in a warm place.
Important! Be careful when buying seeds from the store. Check the expiration date. Remember that seeds obtained from their fruits remain viable for no more than four years.
The soil... Prepare soil for planting. Garden land, high-moor and low-lying peat are mixed in equal proportions. Prepared pots and cups are filled with the mixture. Watered with a pink solution of potassium permanganate. Leave for the earth to settle and compact.
Important! Seedlings of this nightshade crop develop slowly. Calculate planting dates based on the fact that fruits ripen completely 130-160 days after germination.
Seedling... At a temperature of + 20-25 ° C, pre-germinated seeds sprout in 3-5 days, non-germinated seeds - in 2 weeks. At a lower temperature, the germination period increases by 10-15 days.
When shoots appear, the pots are placed on the window sillspositioning south, south-west facing position. The windows are insulated. A board, a plastic sheet is placed under the pots.
Monitor the moisture and temperature of the soil in the pots. Watered with warm water... If the soil is too wet, cold, the seedlings will rot. With a lack of moisture, it withers, dries up.
Eggplant afraid of drafts, even a light breeze leads to the death of seedlings. When growing eggplants near heating batteries, the air humidity is increased by spraying the bushes from a spray bottle.
If the eggplants were sown in a box, dive.
After the cotyledon leaves appear, the sprouts with a clod of earth are carefully transplanted into large containers. If the root system is damaged during the pick, support the plants with the growth stimulator Kornevin.
For active growth and setting of ovaries eggplants need to receive light and heat 12-14 hours a day.
Special lamps for additional illumination of seedlings are fixed at a height of 15-40 cm from the plants.
Important! If the seedlings are planted in the fall with the onset of a short daylight hours, the tops of the plants are pinched. Bushes are removed in the shade. Watering of plants is reduced. Tear off the withered leaves. Plants are not fed. In February, the seedling containers are returned to the light window, and abundant watering and feeding are resumed.
From January to March, seedlings are covered with a mini greenhouse... To do this, a frame is constructed from wire or rails and covered with a thick film. The temperature in the greenhouse is maintained at + 20-25 ° C in sunny weather, + 17 ° C on cloudy days, + 14-17 ° C at night.
Eggplant seedlings fed once every 7-10 days any liquid universal fertilizer based on vermicompost or diluted bird droppings, mullein, semi-decomposed compost. The last time before transplanting, a complete mineral fertilizer is applied. Fertilizing plants is accompanied by abundant watering.
Transfer eggplant seedlings at the age of 70-80 days after the pots are almost completely filled with overgrown roots. For autumn seedlings, this is the first decade of March. Bushes with at least 8 true leaves and 2-3 buds are selected.
Pots for constant growth should be 20-25 cm in diameter, the depth of cassettes, boxes 15-20 cm.
Soil for growing adult eggplants is mixed from equal parts of sand, peat, turf... At the bottom of each container 5-7 granules of complex fertilizer of the "Giant" type, superphosphate are placed to activate the ovaries.
In cassettes, pots, buckets, eggplant bushes are planted in the center, in boxes they leave 25-30 cm between the plants.
With an insufficient amount of land or in the case of planting a tall variety, the growth of seedlings stops, the roots become brown.
In this case, the plant is re-transferred into containers 2-3 cm higher than the previous ones, organic fertilizer for tomatoes and eggplant, for example, Senior Tomato, is added to the ground.
Waiting for the harvest
Eggplants transplanted into the main dish are put on the windows in the second decade of February.
Water regularly. From May - daily... The soil should always remain moist.
With a lack of moisture, plants will begin to shed flower buds and ovaries, taste will deteriorate, and bitterness will appear.
With too rapid growth, the tops of the lateral stems are pinched. During flowering, add 2-3 cm of fresh soil to the stems. When the ovaries begin to form, the procedure is repeated.
Artificial pollination is carried out if the fruits are not actively tied, slowly... Flowering plants are gently shaken, tapped on the stem with fingers, or pollen is transferred from one flower to another with a brush.
For better preservation, fruits are cut with a knife. 20-35 fruits weighing 50-150 g are harvested from the bush. If you want to get large fruits of eggplants, part of the ovaries is removed, leaving 4-6 eggplants on one plant.
How to grow eggplants on the balcony:
- On unheated balconies, loggias, verandas, grown eggplants are taken out in early May.
- The room temperature should be kept within + 23-28 ° С.
- Provide such an arrangement of plants so that you can freely pass between the bushes without touching leaves and thorns.
Eggplant in a private house
Owners of private houses have the opportunity to grow eggplants all year round in heated greenhouses, receiving decent yields.
- Seedlings of plants are grown on a windowsill.
- When planting eggplants in a greenhouse in a permanent place, seedlings are planted in holes of medium depth, spilled with warm water, mulched with a thin layer of peat.
- Leave a distance of 50 cm between the bushes.
- Eggplants in the greenhouse need organic, light soil... Agronomists recommend mixing ordinary garden soil, rotted compost, peat, manure, loosening additives. Before planting, the soil is warmed up to + 18-20 ° C.
- No other crops are planted next to eggplants. The exception is undersized tomato varieties.
- The greenhouse maintains a constant microclimate: daytime temperature +28, at night + 12 ° С... A rise in temperature above + 35 ° C is detrimental to the culture.
- Do not allow moisture changes... To eliminate excess moisture, gently ventilate the greenhouse after each watering.
- The first time after transplanting, eggplants are watered on the fifth day, then daily. Watering is carried out in the morning, under the root, with water with a temperature of at least + 25 ° C.
- They regularly loosen superficially, huddle the basal stem.
Practical tips for growing eggplant in a greenhouse:
Top dressing in greenhouse conditions
For greenhouse eggplant cultivation fertilizers are applied at least 3-5 times per season... First, phosphorus-potassium, during the period of active fruiting, nitrogen-phosphate.
The first feeding is carried out 2-3 weeks after transplanting the seedlings, when the roots take root, they begin to actively assimilate nutrients.
If the plants do not bloom well, they are sprayed with a solution of boric acid. For this, 5 grams of dry matter is dissolved in 5 liters of hot water.
With excessive leafing, excessive build-up of green mass, potassium compounds are introduced. Frail, weak bushes are supported with preparations with a high nitrogen content.
Important! In order not to abuse chemistry, eggplants are fed with solutions of fermented herbs, mullein.
Eggplant cultivated at home and in winter greenhouses susceptible to fusarium wilt, late blight, leaf mosaic.
Treatment is traditional:
- For the treatment of late blight, eggplant bushes in the evening sprayed with preparations containing copper, for example, a solution of copper sulfate (0.2%).
- For the prevention of mosaic, spotting, wipe the eggplant leaves with diluted skim milk.
When growing eggplant at home beware of whiteflies, spider mites, orange aphids... To get rid of insects, plants are treated with neonicotodin insecticides Aktara, Confidor, Mospilan, which have a systemic effect on plants - they penetrate, accumulate in the sap of the plant, feeding on which adults and larvae die.
Garlic infusion helps with spider mites... One glass of crushed garlic is diluted with 10 liters of water. Spray the affected leaves twice a week.
Growing eggplants at home, in an apartment, on the balcony is an interesting, but troublesome and unproductive activity. A larger yield, at comparable costs, is obtained by growing and winter cultivation of eggplants in heated greenhouses on personal plots.
Read other articles on growing and caring for eggplant seedlings:
- Different growing methods: in peat tablets, in a snail and even on toilet paper.
- All the features of sowing according to the lunar calendar.
- Features of cultivation in various regions of Russia: in the Urals, Siberia and the Moscow region.
Master class on growing eggplant on the balcony: