This valuable food crop in Russia is a very important food product. And if in the 18th century it was grown only in pharmaceutical gardens and botanical gardens, today it grows here almost everywhere.
Now in Russia, potatoes are grown everywhere: from the southern regions to the Arctic Circle, from the western borders to the Far East. However, its main massifs are located in regions of the country with moderate climatic conditions.
Naturally, in different climatic conditions, different agricultural techniques are used, biological characteristics are taken into account, but the result is always achieved.
The necessary conditions
- The soil... Potatoes are very fond of loose, light, sandy soil, rich in humus, moreover, open areas. The planting of predecessors has a very favorable effect on the yield: winter cereals and legumes. The soil is perfectly cleaned of pests and pathogens, and is also enriched with useful substances.
- Illumination... The correct illumination is very important for the successful development of the plant; it is advisable to plant potatoes in well-lit, sunny areas. Trees and shrubs nearby are undesirable, since in their shade the yield will sharply decrease.
- Humidity... The humidity requirements are quite large, one bush evaporates 60 - 70 liters of water per season. Most of all moisture is required during the budding period of potatoes and during the growth of tubers. If there is not enough moisture at this time, then, accordingly, the yield will be significantly reduced.
In Russia, unlike other countries (where potatoes grow quite compactly), they are planted on plains and in mountainous areas, in different climatic zones, in different latitudes. It grows in areas with long daylight hours and in hot, even arid climates (for example, in the North Caucasus). Because of this specificity, a large number of different technologies have been developed for growing, harvesting, and storing this root crop.
Vegetable cultivation areas
Where in the Russian Federation is the main part of the crop grown?
The bulk of potatoes are grown in the Central Black Earth Region and in the Non-Black Earth Zone... Very high results are being achieved in the Voronezh, Kursk, Samara and Penza regions.
How are potatoes grown in certain regions?
In Siberia, late spring frosts quite often occur, and in autumn the air temperature begins to drop early, in July there is a very strong heat, and in August, heavy rains always wate the land heavily. Conditions in the north are far from ideal, but especially for Siberia, medium-early and early-ripening varieties have been bred that are capable of producing a good harvest (you can find out how to get a rich harvest of early potatoes here).
Planting potatoes in Siberia is possible only when the ground warms up to 8 degrees Celsius (15 cm deep), the ground must be light and loose.
IMPORTANT! Manure needs to be brought in only for digging in the fall, in the spring this cannot be done, since the potatoes may die. About a month before planting, you need to get root crops from the basement for germination.
There are three most common methods of planting potatoes in Siberia:
- One line - make even rows at a distance of about 60 - 70 cm, plant the tubers 25 cm apart. In such a harsh climate, the most optimal planting depth is about 7 cm.
- Tape - this method is mainly used on an industrial scale. The distance between the two furrows is left 30 cm, then the next ones are placed only after 110 cm. When the bushes are piled up with a tractor, nothing is damaged, this distance is precisely verified.
- Ridge - this option is used on "heavy" waterlogged soil. Its principle is the same as in the previous method, but it differs in the height of the row, it is about 20 cm, it allows you to harvest 2 weeks earlier.
After planting, the ground must be mulched (leaf litter or straw) with a layer of about 15 - 30 cm... Two weeks after the emergence of seedlings, it is necessary to conduct the first watering (read about when to water the potatoes here). The second watering will need to be done at a time when the budding stage begins and the soil dries out about 7 cm in depth.
Periodically, the soil is loosened so that oxygen flows to the tubers, ideally after each rain or watering. After sprouting, the potatoes are spudded, then they do it a second time when the height of the bush is about 15 - 17 cm.
Periodically, you need to put mulch from mowed grass or hay in the aisles, because even June frosts are possible in Siberia. As soon as the potato tops begin to dry out, they start harvesting. Early varieties ripen here by mid-August.
You can find out more about new, unconventional methods of planting potatoes in your personal plot here.
The peculiarity of growing potatoes in this region is that they use a ridge planting, the tubers are embedded about 10 cm in depth. Also popular in Transbaikalia is the Chinese method, the essence of which is that as the bush grows, soil is constantly poured under the root (while not forgetting to fertilize).
Nizhny Novgorod Region
In the Nizhny Novgorod region, it is worth using early varieties for planting potatoes, better sprouted tubers.
Don't forget about fertilizing, hilling and weeding... You should not rush, it is better to do this in May, you should also remember that mulching (around the bush) has a very beneficial effect on the development of the bush.
The best varieties of potatoes for the Moscow region will be early and mid-early varieties, which can be planted in the open field after the end of the spring frost.
According to folk signs, this time coincides with the flowering of bird cherry.... In this region, loamy and sandy loam soil is well suited for potatoes.
Any method of planting is chosen here, but the most popular is the ridge method. Also, do not forget about fertilizers.
Summing up, we can confidently say that potato cultivation in Russia is very successful, and in different zones, very different from each other. With a tendency to reduce planting areas, however, yields are increased thanks to the right technologies. Gardeners are also constantly trying new ways to grow potatoes, experimenting and achieving great results.