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Jerusalem artichoke (Tuberous sunflower of the Astrov family) - in common people better known as "earthen pear". It is a ubiquitous, unpretentious plant that has edible tubers that are rich in nutrients. Both the tubers themselves and the green part are used for food. Also, the plant is used as livestock feed, used in medicine and pharmaceuticals.
There are many varieties of Jerusalem artichoke that differ in appearance, yield, size of tubers, amount of green mass and other indicators.
How not to make a mistake when choosing?
The approach to choosing a variety of Jerusalem artichoke depends on the purpose. Varieties with a predominant growth of the upper part of the plant are fodder varieties, and varieties with a predominant development of tubers are tuber varieties with a wide range of applications.
According to the ripening period, Jerusalem artichoke varieties are:
In their properties, they can also vary greatly (read about the medicinal properties of Jerusalem artichoke here, and from this article you will learn how the vegetable root is useful). Based on this, it is important to choose the right variety of Jerusalem artichoke for its cultivation, it must meet the needs of farmers. That is, it is important here which part of the plant will be needed, tubers or greens. Otherwise, the resulting product will not meet the demand that the manufacturer expected.
The second thing to consider when choosing a variety is the ripening period, that is, the period from planting to harvesting must be sufficient for a given climatic zone, otherwise it may not have time to give a good full harvest.
It should also take into account the fact that late varieties will slightly extend the shelf life of the tubers. And the green mass should be in large quantities throughout the season, so varieties of all ripening periods will be needed so as not to be left without feed in the middle of summer.
If Jerusalem artichoke is grown for decorative purposes or to protect other plants from the winds, then varieties with good decorative properties and increased deciduous mass are needed, which guarantees maximum effect.
Selection rules in different climatic zones
Not every variety is suitable for every region, as different regions have completely different climatic conditions.
- For the Urals.
It is important to choose earlier varieties, since the development cycle of this variety must have time to pass completely before the onset of winter. It is also worth stopping the choice on frost-resistant varieties that allow you to grow Jerusalem artichoke even in the northernmost latitudes, in which tubers can be left in the soil for the whole winter without digging, and which are preserved until spring by 90-100%. With the help of selection, many hybrids with desired properties have been bred.
- For central Russia.
For warm regions of the middle zone of the country, it is advisable to take into account the presence of increased requirements for the variety for heat and drought. It is also recommended to choose late-ripening varieties - these are mainly tall (up to 3-4 m), giving a lot of greenery (up to 1000 c / ha), and tubers, albeit smaller ones.
- For Siberia.
In Siberia, it is not so easy to find a suitable variety of Jerusalem artichoke. Early ripening varieties take root best here. Of course, they can be grown in all regions, but they are especially relevant in this region. Early ripening varieties can also remain in the soil until spring without any loss of properties.
Read more about how to plant Jerusalem artichoke here, and from this article you will learn at what time it is better to plant an earthen pear in different regions.
Description and photos of the main species
Densely branching bush. Large tubers 60-65 g, which can be well stored in the cellar all winter, sprinkled with sand. The color is reddish pink.
Ripens quickly, in 110 - 125 days. Does not require special care, can grow in the shade, the variety is resistant to droughts, heat and frost. Branched stem, about 1.5 m, the leaves are dark, with denticles, resembling a heart. Tuberous nest compact, slightly yellowish tubers, small, rounded. The yield level of tubers is 250 c / ha, green mass - 268 c / ha.
This variety has a greenish-brown stem color, the arrangement of the leaves is in pairs, on the leaves there is soft pubescence. Grows 100-110 days. Pear-like tubers in alternating white and lilac-pink colors, 10-30 tubers in the nest. The variety withstands frost and drought well. Good for the Central Black Earth Region. The yield of tubers is 150 c / ha, green mass - 200 c / ha.
The ripening period for this variety is 140 days, but its tubers overwinter well in the soil until spring and retain 90% of their properties, therefore the variety is zoned for the North-West. The plant has a strongly pubescent stem, the leaves are elongated, sparsely toothed. Strongly branched bush. Tubers are white, elongated, medium in size. High yield of tubers - up to 498 c / ha, as well as green mass - 420 c / ha.
Up to 2 m tall, moderate branching, stems are dark green with a purple tint, leaves are medium in size. Tubers are small (55-60 g), spherical, get up to 1.5 kg from a bush. The growing season is 125-130 days. It grows in any climate. The yield of tubers is 430 kg / ha.
It has a thick, succulent stem with pubescence, and is formed into a spreading bush. The leaves are pointed, large, with hard villi. Elongated tubers are yellow. The growing season for green mass is 125 days. In winter, tubers are 100% preserved in the soil. Green mass yield - 346 kg / ha. Mostly zoned for the North, North-West, Volga-Vyatka region.
A very common forage variety. A very tall (up to 5m) plant with dense branches, does not require bright light, can grow even in the shade.
A variety with a late maturity of 170-180 days, high-yielding, good for the southern climatic zone. The stem is weakly branched, with alternate light leaves. Compact tuberous nest, white-pink tubers with bright pear-shaped eyes. The yield level of tubers is 350 kg / ha.
Tuberous variety. Powerful, intensively branching plant, the ends of the leaves are pointed, small bright flowers with a slight reddish tint. Him large tubers weighing 75-90 g, the color is white with a cream shade, elongated (you can learn about how Jerusalem artichoke blooms, as well as see folk recipes for decoctions and infusions with flowers, you can here). The growing season is 170-180 days. Grown everywhere. The yield of tubers reaches 308 c / ha, and green mass - 354 c / ha.
High-yielding, withstands heat and cold, but does not feel well with a lack of moisture. Ripening period 146 days, harvesting in November, suitable only in the south. It has powerful, fast-growing stems of medium branching. Eyes on smooth tubers. The yield level of tubers is 265 c / ha, green mass - 436 c / ha
Tall (2 m) tuberous variety, moderately bushy, strongly branched. It has large ovoid leaves. Large rounded basket. The tubers are elliptical, white, average size, weight 60 g. The growing season is 170 days. It grows everywhere, except for the subarctic climate. The yield of tubers is up to 400 c / ha, green mass - 320 c / ha.
Species with large tubers
In large-fruited varieties, the mass of tubers reaches 100 g or more.
- The most widespread large-fruited variety is Pasko, its tubers reach 80-90 g and the yield is high, over 300 c / ha. It can be grown everywhere.
- Solnechny variety - tubers 60 g, very high-yielding - up to 400 c / ha. It grows everywhere, except for the Far North.
- Vadim variety - tubers weight 60-65 g, have increased keeping quality.
Of the whole variety of varieties, you must choose for yourself the one that most fully meets the needs for this valuable plant raw material used in agriculture, food industry and medicine.