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Begonia belongs to the begonia family. Its homeland is the tropics and subtropics of Africa, Southeast Asia, where the flower grows on the roots of trees and in the crevices of rocks.
Knowing the natural conditions for the growth of begonia, you need to try to create a similar favorable environment for it in the apartment. In our country, this plant decorates not only the house, but also parks and squares.
In the article we will show you a photo of blooming begonias of different types, we will show you how to care for this plant at home. You can also watch a useful video on this topic.
The necessary conditions
Begonia is considered a rather capricious plant. Growing conditions vary slightly depending on the species. Allocate decorative - flowering and decorative - deciduous begonias. But still there are general recommendations for growing, typical for all species.
Attention: The main feature is the love of consistency. It is better to immediately determine the place of "residence" of the begonias and not to make then sudden movements. Begonia does not like the close proximity of other flowers, so you need to take into account the size of an adult plant.
- Lighting... Prefers bright diffused light, partial shade. Direct sunlight makes its color less saturated, and burns appear on the leaves. Flowering plants need more light. In an apartment, begonias are best placed in western and eastern rooms with moderate winter heating. Tuberous begonia - on the southern windows.
- Temperature... Begonia is thermophilic. Optimum for the summer period is considered to be 20-23 ° С, in winter - not lower than 15-18 ° С. The main thing is to avoid frequent and sharp changes, the plant can shed its leaves. During the budding period, the temperature must be maintained slightly above the optimum.
- Humidity... A tropical plant requires high humidity. It is better to place a container of water near the begonia. You can put moss or expanded clay around the pot, periodically wetting them. In winter, it is recommended to cover the batteries with wet sheets, use a humidifier (how to care for begonia in winter at home is described here). With insufficient moisture, the tips of the leaves dry out.
- Airing... It is necessary to regularly ventilate the room without creating drafts.
When and how to board and transfer?
Planting a tuber
- First you need to choose the right pot and soil. Specialized soil mixtures for all begonias are used ("For begonias", "Begonia" and other analogues). You can prepare the soil yourself. For all begonias, a mixture of leafy, sod, humus lands with peat is suitable. pH 5.5-6.5. It is better to take a ceramic pot, 3-4 cm larger in diameter than the root system of the begonia. If the pot is wider, waterlogging is possible, as well as late flowering.
- Drainage is placed on the bottom (about a third of the pot), then about 2 cm of charcoal is recommended to prevent rot, then the begonia tuber is placed, the rest of the pot is filled with earth mixture.
- It is better to plant a plant in spring, when there is already enough light. Water immediately after planting.
Read about the features of planting begonias in a pot in our material, and find out how to plant a garden begonia in open ground here.
We recommend watching a video about planting a begonia tuber:
Begonia is transplanted as needed, when the roots no longer fit in the old pot, into a more spacious flowerpot. It is better to replant the flower in early spring.
- The roots must be carefully cleaned of the old earth and placed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour, after cleaning, cut off the rotten roots.
- When the plant dries up, you can repot it.
- Then water well and let it adapt in the shade for about five days.
And finally, it will take root in a new place not earlier than in a month. Young plants usually do better after transplanting than mature ones.
Tuberous begonias are transplanted every year... A transplant is also required after buying in a store, since the transport soil is not suitable for the growth and development of the plant (see this article on how to care for the plant after purchase). This is best done a couple of weeks after the begonia is in the new home.
Important: Do not transplant the plant during flowering!
We recommend watching a video about begonia transplantation:
Begonias reproduce by dividing rhizomes, seeds, leaf and stem cuttings... Root in sand or in a mixture of moss and sand. The peculiarity of the plant is that it can grow even from part of the leaf.
How to properly care for a flower?
Begonia is hygrophilous, but can die from excess water.
- It is more important for her to maintain a stable high humidity.
- Do not allow water to stand in the pan.
- It is necessary to irrigate when the top layer of the earth dries out a couple of centimeters.
- In summer, at high temperatures, water from the soil evaporates faster, so watering should be abundant. And in winter, during the dormant period, only after the soil has completely dried out. Tuberous begonias are placed in dry peat for the winter and not watered at all.
Begonia does not tolerate cold water... Watering is necessary only with settled water at room temperature. Read more about proper watering of begonias here.
Top dressing is carried out by applying fertilizers to the soil.
- When the plant begins to bloom, once every 2 weeks, it is fed with liquid fertilizers for flowering plants.
- When the ovary is formed, potassium - phosphorus elements are needed ("Bud", etc.). An indicator that begonias need to be fed is leaf rolling.
- For decorative leafy species, nitrogen fertilizers are used, they stimulate the growth of leaves. For flowering species, they should not be used, flowering will slow down.
It must be remembered that not frequent feeding is suitable for begonias and only during the active growing season. Only tuberous species need constant feeding.
How to fertilize begonia is described in this article, and what kind of fertilizers are suitable for this plant, read here.
We recommend watching a video about the correct feeding of begonia:
Can I spray with water?
Spraying begonia is not recommended, despite its love of moisture, as brown spots will appear on the leaves. This is especially true for varieties with "velvet" leaves. It is important to create high humidity around the air. The begonia does not have a great desire for hygiene, its leaves do not need to be washed, it is enough to remove the dust with a soft cloth.
Names of species, their photos, cultivation features
There are about 1000 species of begonias of different shapes: shrubs, herbaceous plants with shoots. The milestones are characterized by the asymmetry of the leaf. Indoor plants are divided into flowering and deciduous.
Alfalfa (Coral begonia)
Alfalfa is a well-known variety of coral Begonia, belongs to the decorative - deciduous. On bright red peduncles, large pink flowers. Leaves are oval, elongated, red-brown below, green above with silvery spots. Quite unpretentious and stable look. Begonia Alfalfa blooms from February to June.
It does not require any special care, you need to adhere to the general recommendations for growing begonias. You can place it on a well-lit windowsill, avoiding direct sunlight, otherwise the plant will get burns and die.
It is desirable to maintain the air temperature around 20-22 ° С in summer and not lower than 18 ° С in winter.... In the heat - abundant watering, better in the morning and evening, but avoiding waterlogging. In winter - as the soil is completely dry. You cannot spray this kind of begonias!
Lucerne doesn't like changing places. Dredges are suitable for specialized begonias, consisting of deciduous, sod, humus soil, sand and peat.
Young plants are replanted annually due to their growth and a large intake of minerals from the soil. Adults - once every couple of years.
We recommend watching a video about Coral Begonia "Lucerne":
Cuff begonia (collar) is the most unpretentious species of all decorative deciduous begonias, which is why it is very popular. The flowers are pink, small. Beautiful light green leaves with red hairs on the veins on the underside and in the form of a collar at the top of the petiole.
Due to the fact that the plant is quite large, you need to take care of its location in advance, since it does not like moving.
Cuff begonia is very light-requiring, a window sill or an insulated balcony on the south side is suitable for it, but the lighting needs to be made diffused or shaded a little. In winter, it is better to add artificial. If there is little light, the color will become less saturated, and the leaves will wither.
The air temperature is normal room temperature, but not more than 25 ° C. It is necessary to maintain high humidity, ventilate the room. Watering is best done moderately as the topsoil dries out. Do not overflow, as the roots will rot and die.
Begonia is transplanted mainly in the spring.... Weak leaves are removed.
The cut leaf of Begonia cuff can be placed in water until the root filaments appear, and then planted in the ground. But it is better to do this closer to spring, not during the hot season.
Pruning begonias is mainly needed to maintain the attractiveness of the bush.... If the plant has lost some decorative effect, it can be cut with a sharp knife (not with scissors!) So that the height above the pot is about 5 cm. This procedure promotes active growth and awakening of the lateral buds.
Also, the plant is pruned for sanitary purposes, removing dry and damaged branches.
In order for the begonia to have a beautiful crown, pinching is carried out in the spring.... For the first time, this is done when the length of the stem reaches 8 cm, as a result of which lateral shoots are actively growing. And when they grow up to 10 cm, they are also cut off. Further pruning is done as needed, removing long or unnecessary stems.
Advice: All cuts must be treated with chopped charcoal.
Not all varieties of begonias need pruning; for some, this procedure is performed only as a last resort (royal begonia). Ampel species are only pinched.
With the wrong care, begonia can get sick. It is important to notice the first "symptoms" in time and take the necessary measures.
- Pale leaves... A sign of a lack of light.
- Leaves and buds fall... Insufficient watering, dry air.
- Leaves turn yellow... Lack of moisture, or it may be necessary to change the soil.
- Leaves dry... Low humidity, little watering, high air temperature.
- Drooping yellow leaves... Lack of heat.
- Rolling the leaves... The air temperature is very high.
- Leaves turn black... Extremely hot or water splashing on the leaves.
- Begonia does not bloom... The reason may be any non-observance of the rules of care.
Consider the main pests and diseases of the flower.
- Spider mite, aphid... Spraying and washing the leaf with insecticide solutions will help.
- Powdery mildew... Fungal disease, often due to excess moisture.
- Gray rot, botrytis... Use fungicides.
- Bacterial infections, nematodes... Begonia can no longer be cured, the plant is destroyed.
What if the leaves are reddish?
Leaf redness in healthy begonias can occur in late spring or summer. This is a sign of over-lighting. Leaves turn from green to pale yellow or red, lose their saturation. The plant needs to be shaded. If the leaf is not all red, but spots, these are already sunburns.
Begonia is not only a very beautiful flower, but also useful... It releases phytoncides that kill many bacteria, molds, and cleans the air from dust. The plant does not require special care, therefore it is ideal for decorating our apartments and summer cottages.