Tomato was brought to Europe from South America in the 16th century, among the Aztecs “tomatl” from the French tomate. "Tomato" comes from the Italian pomo d'oro - "golden apple". Both names are used.
Brought to Russia by order of Catherine II. Cultivated as a vegetable. In botany, it is a multi-celled syncarp berry. For Europeans, it's a fruit. Known for the antioxidant lycopene, which increases properties after heat treatment. In the article you can learn how to properly sow tomato seeds for seedlings and plant a vegetable in a vegetable garden, greenhouse, greenhouse and more, as well as how to grow tall and healthy vegetables and see their photos.
Selection and preparation of the garden
The beds are prepared 5 - 6 days before planting., in a lit place - one or two years. Do not plant tomatoes after potatoes or next to them (they affect some diseases). The predecessors are legumes, corn, onions, cabbage, in priority - cucumber and pumpkin seeds, forest land, nettles. In the fields - after winter cereals, perfectly - after alfalfa. In clay and loam add 1 m2 a bucket of peat, sawdust and humus and half a kilogram of ash. They dig shovels onto the bayonet with watering with hot potassium permanganate solution.
Components that impart porosity and water permeability:
- light sandy or sandy loam soils 20 - 30%;
- peat 50 - 60%;
- manure compost 20 - 30%.
In the absence of peat, replace with sand. Fresh manure - do not apply. Before digging, add copper oxychloride (an item spoon on a bucket of water), organic matter and mineral fertilizers. Lime acidic soil.
Fertilizers: in the spring for plowing and in the hole when disembarking, they are selected according to the composition.
We offer you to watch a video about preparing a garden for tomatoes:
Choosing a variety of tomatoes
Regionalized varieties and hybrids:
- Central and Northern - Polar early ripening, Snow tale, etc.
- Central black earth —Blues F1, Sunny, etc.
- Volga and Southern - Novice, Torch, etc.
In the middle lane, there are risks of growing outdoors. In the south, greenhouses are not needed in the summer; they are heated for year-round use. The seed packages indicate: for a greenhouse, open ground, or universal.
By types of cultivation:
- superdeterminate —In the open ground or greenhouse;
- indeterminate - for greenhouses (in the south in open ground);
- determinant - for open ground and greenhouses.
By ripening time:
- early maturing;
- late ripening.
- salad and dessert;
- for conservation;
- for storage;
- universal (Moskvich, used fresh and for canning).
- oval or plum-shaped;
Which is better - a variety or a hybrid?
- the opportunity to get your seeds;
- yield and disease resistance are lower.
- the yield is higher;
- more resistant to diseases and pests;
- seeds cannot be obtained.
In any case, growing tomatoes on the site, you have the opportunity to get a huge harvest of tasty and ripe fruits. But this requires proper planting, care and prevention.
How to plant tomato seeds correctly?
The seeds are sown dry or the seeds are soaked before planting. Sowing in boxes or cassettes with drainage to avoid blackfoot infestation. Inspect and discard before sowing.
- a mixture of turf and humus;
- sowing substrate, peat sand;
- coconut substrate;
- peat tablets.
We suggest watching a video on how to sow tomato seeds:
Sowing in mid-March, cover with foil. A week later, shoots appear, light up to 12-16 hours, in the first days around the clock.
- Provide a daytime temperature of + 18-20 degrees, at night + 14-16.
- Do not overmoisten; when dry, it is better to spray. Watering once a week, after the fifth leaf - after three to four days.
- Temper seedlings.
- Picking the grown seedlings into soil - humus cubes or plastic pots after 10 - 14 days.
In the middle lane: early April to greenhouses and hotbeds, from late May to early June - to open beds. Earlier - they will die from frost (possible in late May, early June). Cover with plastic foil when boarding early at nightfixed along the contour.
Seedlings are planted with formed roots, a stem of 30 cm, with the presence of 7-8 leaves. They are planted vertically, deepening above the cotyledons, the soil is compacted.
How to plant tomatoes, for example, in the country? Water and fertilize the wells. Plant on a cloudy day or evening, in two rows: after 40 - 60 cm. 3 - 4 pcs. per 1 m2. By nesting method - 80 X 80 cm, early ripening - 2 per nest, medium and late 1 each.
To the greenhouse and greenhouse
Polycarbonate and glass are warmed up faster, planted earlier. In the greenhouse - in a two-line way: 100 + 60 + 45 (50) cm, standing density - 2, 5 pcs. For tall ones - supports at the ends of the greenhouse, pull the twine, once a week tie the bushes vertically. Plant with an earthen clod, water the holes with water, deepen the cotyledon leaves. Do not water or fertilize during 10 days of acclimatization.
Distance to large objects - 15 meters (blackout). Do not water abundantly, replace the hose with drip irrigation.
Recommendations and rules
In the middle lane - before harvest. Landing in warm soil, with a film coating - in early June, polycarbonate - in mid-May. Beds 30-35 cm high, 40-45 cm wide., seedlings with a clod of earth in the holes. Quenched at + 20 degrees. When transplanting tomatoes into the ground, they temper the night by opening the greenhouse.
In a reckless way
Seeds are planted in the southern regions in the ground. In the middle lane - under arcs with a film or covering material. Determinate varieties, compact. How to plant tomato seeds correctly? Holes in a checkerboard pattern 30 X 30 cm. Ventilate by removing the stepsons.
Before sowing, spill the earth with a hot solution of potassium permanganate... In the hole - 5 seeds, covered with earth and watered with warm water. Cover with jars or plastic bottles. Do not touch until germination. Then open on warm and sunny days, on cloudy, cool days - do not open. After germination, leave 1 - 2 bushes in the hole. Watering is not enough, only in case of drought. Early varieties, fruits ripen two weeks later. Without transplanting into the ground, they are overtaken by grown seedlings.
Next, you can see the photo of the tomatoes:
Step-by-step care from A to Z
Early varieties have a risk of death in frost at + 2 to -1 degrees... Protection - foil cover or caps made of paper, fabric, foil, boxes, buckets. Low-growing ones are huddled before freezing, then they are dug up.
Water once a week, abundantly, at the root, do not wet the tops. Undesirable - watering from a watering can and a hose:
- with a lack of moisture - top rot;
- in excess - gray rot and late blight.
Do not water for 10-15 days after planting. During growth, the appearance of the ovary, increase watering, moisturize with mulching. A drop in moisture causes the fruit to stop growing and crack.
We suggest watching a video about watering tomatoes:
To calculate the nutrition, know the acidity level. First feeding 10 days after planting:
- per 1 m2: 6 g of urea;
- 25 g double superphosphate;
- 10 g of potassium salt.
Feed every 7-15 days.
- Lack of nitrogen stops growing, leaves and stems are pale green, turn yellow and fall off the lower part of the stem.
- Lack of phosphorus impairs the assimilation of nitrogen, growth stops, the stem and petioles turn blue, the leaves turn gray.
- From lack of potassium yellow-brown spots appear on the edges of the leaves, the edges curl, on the fruits - brown spots.
At the beginning of growth, cow dung or bird droppings in solution are used. From the infusion of herbs - top dressing in a barrel, the herbs are poured with water and closed loosely. After two weeks, dilute with water 1:10, watering 5 liters. per bush every 7 - 14 days. Foliar dressing with liquid fertilizers or herbal infusion is sprayed in the evening. How many times to process? Combine with treatment against diseases, 2 - 3 times a season.
After watering, they loosen, breaking the crust and killing weeds. Cutting out weeds (carriers of diseases and pests) - they take food.
Leave the weeded ones in the aisles and on the beds, for mulching and as a source of carbon dioxide (necessary for growth). Mulch:
Hilling - you can skip, expert opinions were divided. The meaning of hilling is the growth of additional roots.
To accelerate ripening, form: remove the leaves, stepchild, thin out the ovary and pinch.
On a bush of two to three stems, the fruits are tied faster, there is no need to remove the lateral shoots.
Pest and disease control
One of the important conditions is weed control.... To combat whitefly: hang up yellow squares, smeared with epoxy glue and oil.
Spider mite - spraying with onion peel infusion. Scoop - spray with insecticides. Against the bear - crushed eggshells with vegetable oil.
- black leg - potassium permanganate;
- apical, gray and white rot, streak, bacterial cancer, spotting - phytosporin;
- late blight - infusion of garlic, salt solution.
- Violation of crop rotation.
- Bad sun exposure.
- Cold ground.
- Lack or excess of moisture.
- Untimely watering.
- Late pinching.
- Disregard for formation.
- Overfeeding leaves and shoots to the detriment of fruiting.
- Untimely prevention of diseases and destruction of pests.
- Heavy, waterproof soil.
- Landing without taking into account possible frosts.
- Excessive crop density.
- Lack or excess of feeding.
- Late pick.
- Neglect of hardening.
- Overgrown seedlings.
There is a year-round demand for tomatoes. Indispensable in cooking. It is used in dietetics and medicine due to the presence of monose, organic acids, pectin, vitamins and minerals, carotene, provitamin D, etc. The rarest lycopene prevents DNA mutations and the growth of cancer cells. Proper planting is a prerequisite for harvesting... Taking into account the rules of agricultural technology, even an amateur can handle it. The reward is fruitful beds and the joy of long-awaited success. Therefore, it is important to know how to properly plant and care for tomatoes.